Skin Pigmentation

Skin Pigmentation at ELIXIR Hair Transplant Center

Knowledge of the structure and function of skin and aspects of the integumentary generally are essential parts of training in many therapies, such as Massage, Aromatherapy, Acupuncture, Shiatsu, and others.

This page is intended for most Basic / First Level Courses in these therapies, and some ITEC Diplomas.
The most Common Skin Conditions are.


Vitiligo is a common disorder in which symmetrical white or pale macules (flat circumscribed areas of skin or areas of altered skin colour) appear on the skin. This can affect all races but is more conspicuous in dark-skinned races. Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease and may occur with other such diseases (e.g. thyroid disease or alopecia areata). It is usually progressive but spontaneous repigmentation may occur.


Albinism is the inherited absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes, resulting in white hair and pink skin and eyes. The pink colour is produced by blood in underlying blood vessels, which are normally masked by pigment. Ocular signs are reduced visual acuity, sensitivity to light (photophobia), and involuntary side-to-side eye movements.


Chloasma takes the form of ill-defined symmetrical brown patches on the cheeks or elsewhere on the face. It is a photosensitivity reaction in women who are taking the combined oral contraceptive pills or who are pregnant. It very rarely occurs in men.


A lentigo is a flat dark brown spot found typically on the skin of elderly people - especially skin exposed to light. Lentigines have increased numbers of melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Freckles, in contrast, do not show an increase in these cells.

In lentigo maligna (or Hutchinson's lentigo), which occurs on the cheeks of the elderly, the spot is larger than 2 cm in diameter and has variable pigmentation.

Moles (papilloma)

Moles: A mole is a nonmalignant collection of pigmented cells in the skin. These are relatively rare in infants/young children but increase in numbers during childhood and especially in adolesence, then deline in numbers in old age. They vary widely in appearance, being flat or raised, smooth or hairy. Changes in the shape, colour etc., of moles in adult life should be investigated as this may be an early sign of malignant melanoma. (Medical name: pigmented narvus.)

Papilloma: A papilloma is a benign nipple-like growth on the surface of the skin or mucous membrane. Examples include basal-cell papillomas and bladder papillomas.

Port wine stain (capillary naevus)

A "Port Wine Stain" (capillary naevus) is a permanent purplish discolouration that may occur anywhere on the body but is usually located on the upper half of the body.
Laser treatment can reduce the discolouration. Occasionally a port-wine stain may be associated with a malformation of blood vessels over the brain, for example in the Sturge-Weber syndrome.

ELIXIR Hair Transplant Islamabad Skin Laser & Cosmetic Surgery Center

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